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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2020
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 113-183

Online since Saturday, August 1, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Effects of Total Abdominal Hysterectomy and Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy on Urinary Tract Dysfunction Highly accessed article p. 113
Gökmen Sukgen, Ünal Türkay
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_43_19  
Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the urinary tract dysfunction rates of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Turkish patients who underwent TAH and laparoscopic hysterectomy were invited to participate in this study. In this study, 140 patients were examined who underwent hysterectomy in gynecology clinic between 2013 and 2018. The post residual urine volumes of patients were measured in the preoperative period and 8th week of the postoperative period as urodynamic evaluation (with office cystometry and Q tip test). Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis Mann–Whitney U test by using SPSS 22.0 statistical program. Results: No statistical significance (P > 0.05) was found between age, parity, menopause, and obesity in our patients who underwent TAH and laparoscopic hysterectomy with high postvoid residual values in the postoperative period. Conclusion: In this study, no statistical significance was found between the hysterectomy techniques on urinary tract dysfunction. It can be said that laparoscopy should be more preferable in correctly selected patients for minimal dysfunctional complications.
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Effect of recurrence of hydrosalpinx after tubal ligation on the outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment: A retrospective cohort study p. 118
HaiLing Liu, ZhiNa Yao, Rougxiu Zhang, SheLing Wu, ShangGe Lv, Lei Yan
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_27_19  
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of recurrent hydrosalpinx after proximal tubal ligation and distal salpingostomy on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and twenty-six patients with hydrosalpinx undergoing laparoscopic surgery before IVF were enrolled in the study. Five hundred and sixty-two patients treated with proximal tubal ligation and distal salpingostomy were included in Group A. One hundred and sixty-four cases managed with salpingectomy were grouped into Group B. Group A were further divided into two subgroups. One hundred and forty-six patients in Group A1 had a recurrence of hydrosalpinx. Four hundred and sixteen patients in Group A2 had no repetition of hydrosalpinx. We compared the pregnancy outcomes of their subsequent fresh embryo transfer cycles among the three groups. Results: There were no significant differences among the three groups in terms of age, body mass index (23.56 ± 3.27 vs. 23.13 ± 3.42 vs. 23.63 ± 3.73, P = 0.195), basal hormone level (7.03 ± 1.75 vs. 7.08 ± 2.26 vs. 7.44 ± 2.93, P = 0.195), antral follicle count (12.25 ± 5.92 vs. 12.63 ± 5.71 vs. 11.70 ± 4.98, P = 0.188), duration of gonadotropin (Gn) (11.19 ± 2.1 vs. 10.93 ± 1.84 vs. 10.79 ± 2.03, P = 0.182), consumption of Gn (2136.73 ± 855.65 vs. 1997.15 ± 724.72 vs. 2069.05±765.12 , P = 0.14), endometrial thickness (1.1 ± 0.27 vs. 1.1 ± 0.24 vs. 1.1 ± 0.17, P = 0.352), base follicle-stimulating hormone (6.21 ± 3.43 vs. 6.52 ± 3.20 vs. 5.89 ± 3.10, P = 0.1), number of embryos transferred (1.87 ± 0.36 vs. 1.83 ± 0.42 vs. 1.88 ± 0.37, P = 0.224), and number of high-grade embryos (3.77 ± 2.42 vs. 4.01 ± 2.72 vs. 4.17 ± 2.74, P = 0.41). No differences were detected in clinical pregnancy rate (50% vs. 54.8% vs. 50%, P = 0.439), the live birth rate (86.3% vs. 82.0% vs. 87.8%, P = 0.398), fertilization rate (64.1% vs. 64.4% vs. 64.7%, P = 0.928), and biochemical pregnancy rate (4% vs. 4.5% vs. 7%, P = 0.332) among the three groups. Conclusion: The recurrence of hydrosalpinx after tubal ligation does not affect the outcomes of IVF/ICSI. It is not necessary to worry about the effect of recurrent hydrosalpinx on pregnancy outcomes of IVF/ICSI that may due to the spread of inflammation through lymphatic circulation or blood circulation.
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Single-incision mini-sling for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: Is it actually inferior to transobturator vaginal tape and tension-free vaginal tape? p. 123
Matej Kersic, Maruša Keršič, Tina Kunič, Simone Garzon, Antonio Simone Laganà, Matija Barbič, Adolf Lukanović, David Lukanovi
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_78_19  
Objectives: The aim of the study was to report the extended long-term results of the use of single-incision mini-sling (SIMS), tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), and transobturator tape (TOT) for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Medical Center Ljubljana. Materials and Methods: Enrolled women were evaluated by Patient Global Impression of Severity (PGI-S), Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I), Sandvik severity scale, Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UI) Short Form and data about diagnosis, procedures, complications, reoperations, postoperative results, and satisfaction with procedure were recorded. Results: In analyzed group of patients (n = 357), 116 (32%) underwent SIMS procedure, 189 (53%) TOT, and 52 (15%) TVT. The SIMS, TOT, and TVT groups did not differ significantly from each other in PGI-S, PGI-I, Sandvik severity scale, UDI-6, IIQ-7, and ICIQ-UI Short Form or in postoperative complication rate. Repeat surgery was needed in 9.5% after SIMS, in 13.2% of TOT patients and in 23.1% of TVT patients (P = 0.194). Urinary retention occurred in 9.5% of the SIMS patients, in 9.5% of the TOT patients, and in 13.5% of the TVT patients (P = 0.682). Mesh erosion/inflammation occurred in 3.4% of the SIMS patients, in 6.3% of the TOT patients, and in 3.8% of the TVT patients (P = 0.485). Conclusion: The efficacy and safety of SIMS, TOT, and TVT in the surgical treatment of SUI are comparable. The choice of the technique should be based on the relative pros and cons of techniques and the surgeon's experience.
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Diagnostic role of papanicolaou smear, hemoglobin, blood group, and other clinical symptoms in detecting endometrial carcinoma: A clinicopathological study of 175 Iranian women with endometrial carcinoma p. 131
Maryam Sadat Hosseini, Shima Mohammadian, Farah Farzaneh, Maliheh Arab, Tahereh Ashrafganjoei
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_93_19  
Objectives: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a common gynecologic malignancy in the female genital tract, especially in postmenopausal women. The current study aimed to analyze Papanicolaou (Pap) smear in patients with EC to assess the relationship between EC and abnormal cells in Pap smear, ABO blood group, and hemoglobin anemia.Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 175 patients with EC in Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during the period from 2013 to 2019. The histology information of cases was extracted from the hospital database, and Pap smear slides were taken from pathological archives. The acquired information and slides were then reviewed by an expert pathologist in the hospital. The data were analyzed in SPSS (version 18) by the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and independent-samples t-test. P < 0.05 was assigned as significant.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.47 ± 11.34, ranging from 32 to 85 years, and 31.4% of the patients were premenopausal women. Grade III, invasion ≥ 50% of myometrial, and advanced stage (III and IV) were diagnosed in 30%, 7.4%, and 22.86% of the patients, respectively. The most common histological types of EC were endometrioid (66.9%), papillary (10.3%), and malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (5.7%). The abnormal Pap smear was achieved only in 37 EC patients (21.1%). Endometrial cells, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and atypical glandular cells were observed in 56.8%, 29.7%, and 13.5% of the patients > 40 years of age with abnormal Pap smears, respectively. In patients with normal Pap smears, the most common results were inflammation in 75.1% and atrophy in 14.6% of the patients. Abnormal uterine bleeding was the most important problem observed in patients with EC.Conclusion: The efficacy of Pap smear in detecting EC is limited. Therefore, women with EC, >40 years of age, with heavy bleeding, anemia, O blood group, inflammation, and atrophy in Pap smear in the past 3 years need to be precisely checked up for EC. These items can be added as new criteria for EC screening procedures.
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Surgicopathological outcomes and survival in carcinoma body uterus: A retrospective analysis of cases managed by laparoscopic staging surgery in Indian women p. 139
Dipak Jagdishchandra Limbachiya
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_96_19  
Objectives: The context of this article is based on two main titles those being Gynecologic Oncology and Minimal invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to report the laparoscopic management of a series of cases of endometrial carcinoma managed by laparoscopic surgical staging in Indian women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a private hospital (referral minimally invasive gynecological center). This was a retrospective study (Canadian Task Force Classification II-3). Eighty-eight cases of clinically early-stage endometrial carcinoma staged by laparoscopic surgery and treated as per final surgicopathological staging. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgical staging of endometrial carcinoma, followed by adjuvant therapy when needed. Data were retrieved regarding surgical and pathological outcomes. Recurrence-free and overall survival durations were measured at follow-up. Survival analysis was calculated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Results: The median age of presentation was 56 years, whereas the median body mass index was 28.3 kg/m2. Endometroid variety was the most commonly diagnosed histopathology. There were no intraoperative complications reported. The median blood loss was 100 cc, and the median intraoperative time was 174 min. There were a total of 5 recurrences (5.6%). The outcome of this study was comparable to studies conducted in Caucasian population. The predicted 5-year survival rate according to Kaplan–Meier survival analysis is 95.45%, which is comparable to Caucasian studies. Conclusion: Laparoscopic management of early-stage endometrial carcinoma is a standard practice worldwide. However, there is still a paucity of data from the Indian subcontinent regarding the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery in endometrial carcinoma. The Asian perspective has been highlighted by a number of studies from China and Japan. To our knowledge, this study is the first from India to analyze the surgicopathological outcomes following laparoscopic surgery in endometrial carcinoma. The outcome of this study was comparable to studies conducted in Caucasian population.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Interval laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (ILTACC) using needleless mersilene tape for cervical incompetence p. 145
Quenny Michelle Dyan Apat Alas, Chyi- Long Lee, Hsin- Hong Kuo, Chen- Ying Huang, Chih- Feng Yen
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_90_19  
Interval Laparoscopic Transabdominal Cervical Cerclage (ILTACC) has become a procedure of choice for many laparoscopic surgeons in nonpregnant patients diagnosed with cervical incompetence (CI) due to the inherent advantages it offers. The study was conducted to describe the feasibility of performing a three-step approach of ILTACC using a needleless mersilene tape in patients diagnosed with CI. A case series of three patients diagnosed with CI who underwent ILTACC using needleless mersilene tape referred at a tertiary hospital for cerclage. Women diagnosed with CI who underwent ILTACC using a needleless mersilene tape were included in the study, and surgical outcomes were measured. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic profile and surgical outcomes of the patients. Three patients with a mean age of 31 (standard deviation [SD] = 4.96) years with a gravidity of 2.67 (SD, 0.82) and parity of 0.33 (SD, 0.47) were selected. The cervical length was 1.98 (SD, 0.76) cm. The average operative time was 149 (SD, 43.87) minutes. All patients had minimal blood loss (≤ 60 ml) without intraoperative blood transfusion. The hospital stay was 1.33 (SD, 0.47) days with a median of 1 and a range of 1–2 days. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. No cases were converted to laparotomy. The result of this article shows the safety and feasibility of ILTACC using needleless mersilene tape. However, it should be evaluated in more cases.
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CASE REPORTS Top

An ultralate female growing teratoma syndrome: 19 years after aggressive treatment for advanced ovarian immature teratoma p. 150
Tanitra Tantitamit, Ala U'wais, Kuan- Gen Huang
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_70_18  
We report a rare case with the late occurrence of growing teratoma syndrome (GTS). A 24-year-old woman with Grade 3 immature teratoma of ovary underwent complete surgery and chemotherapy. Nineteen years later, she developed hematuria and pelvic mass that was completely resected and pathology revealed mature cystic teratoma. She has regularly followed up with tumor marker and computed tomography every three months. No evidence of disease has been detected throughout 14 years. In addition, we present a brief review of literature of ovarian GTS in the last decade. We have found that advanced stage, high grade, or early recurrence of germ cell tumor (GCT) could be the risk factors of GTS. It tends to appear within 1 year if the patients had the incomplete resection of primary disease. We stress the importance of long-term follow-up after treatment GCT to early recognition and treatment.
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Iatrogenic parasitic myoma with two recurrence times after subsequent myomectomy: A rare and complicated case report p. 154
Pei- Chen Li, Ming- Hsing Lee, Yu- Chi Wei, Yung- Hsiang Hsu, Mun- Kun Hong
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_88_19  
Increasing number of parasitic myoma (PM) cases due to specimen morcellation during minimally invasive surgery have been reported. The patient was a 46-year-old woman receiving laparoscopic subtotal hysterectomy due to fibroids. She was diagnosed as having PM and had two recurrences after subsequent myomectomies. To prevent recurrence, specimen-contained morcellation was performed during the myomectomies and postoperative ulipristal acetate was given, but with no effects. The interval between each recurrence decreased. Progressive lower abdominal pain and prominent vessels on the myoma were the two distinct clinical characteristics that differentiated PM from general myoma. This case study highlights the importance of specimen containment before morcellation in minimally invasive surgery and implies that the pathogenesis of PM recurrence is unknown.
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Retained intrauterine sutures for 6 years p. 159
Mukhit Sarsembayev, Svetlana Shikanova, Bakyt Karimova, Gulmira Mukhambetalyeva, Ibrahim A Abdelazim
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_42_19  
The most common sutures used for uterine suturing during cesarean section (CS) are vicryl and/or chromic catgut. The sutures' chemistry and polymer morphology alter sutures' performance and absorption. If the sutures used during CS undergo inappropriate hydrolysis and absorption, the retained intrauterine sutures may cause intrauterine inflammations with subsequent abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and/or infertility. This report represents a rare case report of retained intrauterine sutures for 6 years after previous CS, which were incised and released from its attachment to the uterine wall using operative hysteroscopy. This report highlights that the retained intrauterine sutures may interfere with sperm transport and implantation and act as a foreign body with subsequent intrauterine inflammation and infertility. In addition, the report highlights the role of a hysteroscopy as the gold standard for uterine cavity assessment in women presented with AUB and/or infertility.
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Ovarian Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Initially Suspected Dysgerminoma Managed by Laparoscopic Staging Surgery p. 162
Pei- Chen Li, Pei Qi Lim, Yung- Hsiang Hsu, Dah- Ching Ding
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_79_19  
Ovarian diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rare. DLBCL is a complex type of lymphoma. The ovarian DLBCL usually harbor a favorable prognosis. We report a case of ovarian DLBCL that presented as an ovarian mass with lower abdominal pain and was managed using laparoscopic staging surgery. A 29-year-old female (gravida 2, para 0, abortion 2) with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome with irregular medication control visited our clinic due to lower abdominal pain. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous, septated mass over the left adnexa with a diameter of approximately 6 cm × 8 cm. The tumor marker CA 19-9 was elevated (65.77 IU/mL); CA125 and carcinoembryonic antigen were not elevated. Laparoscopic surgery with left salpingo-oophorectomy was first performed. Frozen section indicated dysgerminoma. Then, we continued staging surgery through bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, para-aortic lymph node dissection, omentectomy, right ovary and peritoneum biopsy, and washing cytology. Ovarian tumor and para-aortic lymph nodes were positive for lymphoma. The tumor cells were positive staining for CD20, CD5, ki67, BCL-6, and MUM-1, which was associated with DLBCL. The patient was then consulted for oocyte preservation and referred to hematology for further chemotherapy. In conclusion, an ovarian lymphoma is a rare event. The presence of an enlarged ovarian tumor should raise the suspicion of ovarian lymphoma. To differentiate ovarian lymphoma from dysgerminoma, immunohistochemistry is useful. Fertility preservation should be considered before chemotherapy. Ovarian tissue or oocyte preservation or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist injection before chemotherapy can be performed for fertility preservation.
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Renal calyceal rupture following ureteral injury after total laparoscopic hysterectomy p. 166
Rafł Watrowski, Burghardt Babbel, Dagmar Fisch
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_28_19  
Ureteral injury (UI) complicates 0.1%–2.5% of total laparoscopic hysterectomies (TLHs). Renal calyceal rupture (RCR) is predominantly seen in patients with ureteral stones causing ureteral obstruction. Iatrogenic (surgical and nonsurgical) causes are responsible for only 3.5% of RCR. A 45-year-old gravida 4, para 2 female with a body mass index of 20 and no previous abdominal surgeries underwent a TLH due to hypermenorrhea and secondary anemia in the presence of a myomatous uterus. Intraoperatively, pelvic endometriosis and an isthmic myoma, 4 cm in diameter, were documented. On the 2nd postoperative day, the patient reported right-sided loin pain. The computed tomography scan revealed a right-sided RCR with urine extravasation and a retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal urinoma. The patient was treated with a transitory nephrostomy for 6 months, and subsequently finally with ureteroneocystostomy (psoas hitch). This case extends the spectrum of iatrogenic RCR causes as well as UI manifestations after TLH.
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Endometriosis of the paralumbar muscles: A case report and literature review p. 170
Mareesol Chan-Tiopianco, Chen- Yu Huang, Ling- Yu Jiang, Chiung- Ru Lai, Peng- Hui Wang, Yi- Jen Chen
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_81_19  
The objective of this study is to report a case of deep endometriosis of the paralumbar muscles (psoas, multifidus, and erector spinae) and review existing literature on its management. A 34-year-old female with a history of endometriosis was seen for infertility. Paralumbar muscle masses seen on computed tomography (CT) scan were sampled, confirming endometriosis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was given for 2 months. The patient was primed for assisted reproduction. A literature review was conducted to provide an understanding of paralumbar muscle endometriosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multifidus and erector spinae muscle endometriosis and fifth case of psoas muscle endometriosis. Because the available information is scarce, data from the existing literature on deep endometriosis may aid in the diagnosis and management. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT scan are essential imaging techniques to map lesions. Excision seems prudent, but the approach should be individualized depending on the patient's presentation and her preferences.
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Total robotic myomectomy in a complex case: Extending the limits p. 175
Pakhee Aggarwal, Suneeta Mittal, Deepika Hooda
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_95_19  
We present the case of a 30-year-old female with primary infertility who had multiple large myomas up to 22 weeks uterine size. She had a body mass index of 42 kg/m2 and also concurrent endometriosis, for which she was on medical management. After meticulous preoperative planning, total robotic myomectomy and endometriosis clearance was done. Four large myomas weighing a total of 750 g were removed after morcellation. Console time was 160 min, and she made an uneventful recovery with only 0.1 g/dL drop in hemoglobin. Robotic myomectomy is considered as an improvement over laparotomy for patients with up to three myomas and when the surgical time does not exceed 4 hours. We were successful in our attempt at total robotic myomectomy to extend these limits and had a positive surgical outcome.
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Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery myomectomy followed by hysterectomy p. 179
Phornsawan Wasinghon, Chyi- Long Lee, Shazia Khan
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_62_18  
Transvaginal surgery is the most minimally invasive surgery for a gynecologic procedure. A 67-year-old woman who had four children with vaginal deliveries and one abortion, with no underlying disease and a body mass index of 22.4 kg/m2, came to the hospital due to menorrhagia. Her diagnosis was myoma uteri from an asymptomatic palpated mass at the lower abdomen. The ultrasonography showed a 9 cm × 5.9 cm myoma mass at the anterior wall of the uterus. After counseling, the transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) operation was conducted on May 2018. The process was a transvaginal NOTES hysterectomy following a transvaginal NOTES-assisted myomectomy. The uterine weight was 376 g. In this case, the surgeons could not enter into the pelvic cavity completely because the myoma mass was attached to the bladder which led to the surgeons safely performing the transvaginal NOTES myomectomy before the hysterectomy.
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CLINICAL IMAGE Top

Primary ovarian leiomyoma p. 182
Shweta Raje, Sharda Arvind, Gayatri Rao, Latika Chawla
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_14_19  
Primary ovarian leiomyoma is an extremely rare form of extrauterine leiomyomas. The incidence of primary ovarian leiomyoma is 0.5%–1% of all benign ovarian smooth muscle tumors. We present a case of primary ovarian leiomyoma managed laparoscopically with ovarian preservation.
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